Manufacturing process how jeans are made

Constructing a pair of blue jeans requires more pieces and steps than a t-shirt.

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The branded jeans are manufactured at two facilities operations are done Both manually and automatically in denim factory .

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Denim rolls are very heavy and are often times handled one at a time with a forklift .

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Because there is a major issue of shade variation from one dye lot of fabric  because  most of jeans manufacturers try to group the rolls from the same dye lot together.

The stack able pallet racks facilitate such storage and allow a large number of similar rolls to be delivered to the cutting room at one time.

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A supervisor or lead person in the cutting room will typically roll out the assigned marker on the cutting table the marker will be checked to ensure.

That it is appropriate for the fabric being used that all of the pattern pieces are included for the sizes designated in the cut order.

The table will then be marked with the appropriate splice marks and notation will probably be made of any variation in ply height from one section to the next.

Because of the weight of denim rolls most are loaded onto a spreading machine using a forklift a hoist or two people.

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The operator spreads the fabric according to the length of the combined sections in the marker roller bearings on the machine allow the roll of fabric to turn freely. The operator secures the fabric at one end and then allows the weight of the fabric to turn the roll feed off the necessary fabric.

This is possible with denim jean because of little stretch in the fabric.The spreader will adjust the spreader cart to maintain an even edge of fabric

onto the near side of the spread and watch for fabric defects as the fabric lays onto the table each end of each ply of fabric.

It should be cut squarely and accurately to avoid wasting fabric or having garments with incorrect piece length with directional fabric that has a face side.

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The company may choose to spread all of the fabric with the face side up this requires the spreader to walk the length of the table without laying down fabric for each ply.

The total height of a spread number of ply is determined by the cutting process used whenever the spreader finds a defect in the fabric .

It must be cut out some of the flaws or joints are pre marked by the fabric mill to ensure that all garment pieces are complete the spreader must use designated splice marks to determine.

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Where the fabric can be cut and restarted you once the appropriate number of ply have been laid on the table the paper marker will be rolled out and positioned to provide the cutter with an outline of each pattern piece.

It is quite common to have multiple sections in a marker each of which contains all of the pieces to make a designated number of garments.

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For a particular size because equal quantities are not needed in all sizes different sections may require a different number of ply the appropriate paper marker should be cut to fit on each section to avoid distortion in the pattern pieces.

The cutting process on denim requires considerable force because of the density of the fabric consequently there is a limited number of ply that can be cut regardless of whether the fabric has cut manually or with a computer-controlled cutter.

Generally the cutter must guide the knife through the fabric following the lines drawn on the marker laid on the top of the spread. Unfortunately the more efficiently the pattern pieces are laid into a marker.

The more difficult the cutters task becomes there are of course some areas were cutting accuracy is more important to achieve high quality mens jeans pants.

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Than others because of multiple pieces that must fit together in addition to these areas the cutter must pay particular attention to notches and corners shade mark parts is required.

Because of the mentioned shading issues and the fact that a garment has pieces sent to many departments and then returned for assembly most manufacturers.

Adhere a special sticker to each garment piece that denotes the size bundle and ply number of the garment.

These stickers may be applied to all pattern pieces or just major body pieces the numbering system makes the cutting room aware of missing pieces early in the process.

As well as giving the sewing operator a checking mechanism to ensure that bundles have not been mismatched.

Otherwise have one or more ply out of the proper rotation within the bundle once. The fabric is cut control tickets are placed on each bundle of parts to aid in process control tracking as well as matching the appropriate parts the bundle parts operation is.

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Where individual pattern pieces are tied into bundles and sent to the appropriate Department where sewing begins now that cutting is complete. The process continues with assembling the Jean components denim jeans are made of many components including pockets a yoke front and back leg panels and waistband.

Belt loops other items include a zipper a cap or post and buttonhole rivets for pocket reinforcement and a waistband product label special sewing techniques are used.

This including bar tacking for special pockets and added strength now let’s take a look at how.

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Branded jeans are assembled there are two basic types of pockets which are Generally called patch or hung pockets. The patch pockets have the edges turned under this is called a hem pocket.

To finish the top of the pocket the material is run through a folder and stitched parallel to the folded edge. The number of rows of stitching and the color of thread are often considered a style feature.

When sewn by manually sliding the material into the folder the operator must carefully control how much fabric is fed into the folder.

It is typical to sew the pockets still connected by the thread into a box and then clip and stack them apart the use of an automatic machine reduces the skill.

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Level of the attending person to that of a loader and will normally include the stacking function decorative stitch pockets is both a tedious and important task many jeans manufacturers consider the pocket stitching to be a trademark.

Some companies even carry it to the point of sewing two rows of stitching with two passes of a single needle machine rather than use a two needle machine in one pass.

Typically the pockets are stitched after hem pockets to ensure the placement of the stitching relative to the finished edge.

When trademark definition and capital expenditure allows the use of a programmable sewing machine greatly reduces the skill required and makes reproducing the exact contour of many different designs possible the machine is equipped with a clamp.

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That moves the pocket under the sewing needle therefore only requiring a loader rather than a skilled operator a lock stitch will normally be used to prevent.

The entire design from raveling out if one stitch is broken set patch pocket is very similar. Whether the pocket is set to the back panel of the garment or to a sub assembly as done when attaching the watch pocket to the front pocket facing.

The operator must fold the edges of the pocket under and then accurately follow.

The designated contour of the pocket depending upon the style features this may be done with a single needle or double needle lock stitch to increase flexibility. The operator may use a double needle machine but remove one needle for the appropriate single needle styles.

There are numerous methods of ensuring proper placement of the pocket one of which is to mark the pocket outline. Usually with chalk the difficulty of this operation and the lack of skilled operators has forced many companies to spend the money for automatic pocket setters these computer or cam controlled.

Machines require special attachments for each style and therefore limit the variety of pocket shapes offered hung pockets are pieces of fabric either the same as the garment.

Or else some less expensive pocketing material that are attached to the pant at a seam and form a bag or pocket when finished. When a different material is used the customary practice is to sew a piece of the body break a facing onto a portion of the pocket that will show in the finished garment.


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Set pocket facings is the operation that attaches the facing to the pocket bag labels or decorative items may be attached to either piece.

Before they are sewn together stay stitch labels is an operation that exactly positions the labels. That will be sewn into the garment during a subsequent operation pre positioning one or more labels in.

This manner frequently makes the subsequent operation such as set band. Which is done from the opposite side of the garment less difficult and reduces quantity problems once all preliminary operations are done to a hung pocket it goes to close pocket bag.

Where several of the edges are closed often after folding the fabric to eliminate having to sew one side. This operation is typically done with a safety stitch seam in order to increase the durability of the pocket before the pocket is sewn to the pants.

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It must be turned right-side out this turn pockets operation utilizes a pointed rod or dowel to shape the corners and fold the seam in the proper direction. The closed pocket bags are then attached to the garment in the set front pocket operation a single needle lock stitch is often used.

Because of the unusual curves that are found as style features on the pockets. This operator has a significant impact on the look of the finished garment. Especially the consistency from left side to right side to improve the efficiency of this job.

And to allow the operator to follow the same curved line for a number of garments all of the left fronts in a bundle will be sewn. Then all the rights a regular style feature of blue jeans is to have a yoke or riser attached to the lower panel of the Jean back.

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In addition to appearance this panel can have some functionality towards shaping the garment. When cut in the appropriate direction of the fabric setback riser is performed with an off the arm felling machine which utilizes a double folder to turn both ply to the inside with a resultant interlocking.

Seam the double needle chain stitch with an extended arm allows for easier positioning of the parts and creates a very durable seam with a little stretch. Because the same type of seam is used to fail seat seam this plant chose to have the same operator perform both sews the thickness of the fabric when the two riser seams are joined together requires extra care.

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On the part of the operator one method of closing the out seam of pants is to sew them with a single needle stitch while not extremely common in jeans. This method does allow for easier alterations to maintain the integrity of the fabric in the same during wear and washing.


it is necessary to over edge the panel’s before they are seamed together by performing this operation after the seat seam is joined. The operator must pick up and dispose fewer panels the back panels are then ready for assembly the same method is used to over edge the front panels before the fronts and backs are joined.

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Set zipper to fly is a small parts operation that joins the edge of the zipper tape to the inside piece of the front panel.while this plant sets a zipper that has already cut to length some plants use zipper tape from a continuous roll and then chop. it apart a double needle chain stitch is used to provide extra durability and some give or stretch in the finished fly set fly to front and edge stitch is a two-step.

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Operation utilizing the same single needle lock stitch machine the operator stitches the fly assembly with zipper attached to the front and then creases the seam with the back edge of the snips to ensure that the underlying plies of fabric fall in the appropriate direction.

The seam is then edge stitched a very narrow top stitch to hold the seam in place and for reinforcement once the fronts are joined a specialty machine is used to bar tack fly this stitch forms a very strong reinforcement performing very closely located zigzags with several lengthwise stitches exact positioning is required to eliminate.

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Any puckers at the front of the garment and to provide the intended support once the inseam is joined together. it is reinforced by the top stitch inseam operation a single needle lock stitch is used here. one of the more difficult parts of this job is to get the underlying seam delay in the proper direction especially at the crotch seam.

The join out seam or side seam is performed on this style with a single needle lock stitch well not common for jeans this stitch would allow for easier alterations of the garment.

If the stitch should break it will not unravel the operator uses an edge guide to maintain a consistent seam margin down the side of the pant.

bust side-seam with a hand iron is an operation that spreads open the two ply of fabric down to the stitch line this will ensure.

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That the seam will be evenly distributed in the bottom hem of the leg the set waistband operation attaches a folded band to the completed pair of pants the band is cut from the marker and is long enough to encircle the finished circumference of the pant.

Plus enough to tuck into each end of the band the operator inserts the band into a folder that turns the lower edges of the band to the inside creating a finished edge inside and out the operation is performed with a multi needle chain stitch machine.

which in this case utilizes three needles the lower two needles secure the band while the upper needle secures the fold at the top of the band the operator must tuck the ends of the band inside after the folder is created by the folder and before the band is positioned at the needle at the trailing end of the band the operator.

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Must also tuck the ends before the edge of the garment goes under the sewing machine foot using a cylinder. bed machine makes it easier to sew the circular top of the pant the operator should take care to keep the hung pockets from being caught in the seam.

once the waistband is set the set waist label can tie the stitch line into that of the waistband set machine.The label must be set in an exact position and is considered a trademark by most companies.

Belt loops are often cut in the spread of cloth in order to ensure the color match of the finished fabric care must be taken to keep.

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all the loop strips together and matched up with the same lot of pants the ends of the strips are overlapped as they are fed into the folder for make belt loops the double needle lock stitch machine is set in a cover stitch configuration to form a decorative stitch on the top and protect the raw edges on the bottom pressing the continuous chain.

May aid the automatic machine in measuring the loops and detecting the overlap joint so that the joints will be cut out and not go on to a pant setting belt loops is normally a difficult task because of folding the short ends and holding them in exact position during the so an automatic loop.

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setter reduces the difficulty of that task to simply being able to position the garment band in the proper location for the loop. the machine will cut the loop to the proper length fold the ends under and then sew both ends of the loop the machine.  may have a red dot light to aid in positioning the position of the stitches on the loop must match the style features of the garment.

Bartek machine will be set to the proper length and number of stitches as noted in the garment specifications once the waistband is complete. the buttonhole is sewn into the end of the band this particular sewing machine is computer-controlled to set. the length of the buttonhole and the number of stitches these specifications will be determined by the size of the button to be used on the finished Jean the operator simply positions the pant into a guide on the machine bed and activates the machine to complete the so

thus reducing the skill required the so time is long enough to allow the operator to grasp the next garment reinforcement of the front pockets has developed into a marketing tool many of the rivets are custom produced for a jeans manufacturer even when more commonly available .

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Rivets are used the placement is dictated by the spec sheet and may be used as a style feature the pocket rivet can be set with a motor-driven machine. where the rivets  are fed from a hopper and the operator simply activates the machine the placement of the rivets may be guided with the use of a red dot pointer. the other extreme of this operation is when the operator loads .the rivets into the magnetic holding die and then forces the rivet pieces together using a leg pressing motion set metal cap button is very similar to the rivet operation.

Jeans typically do not have a sewn on button but have a pointed metal stud that is forced through the fabric and then a cap with a shank is forced down over the stud in most cases the operator will use an edge guide to position the garment some manufacturing plants will mark the placement of the button through the button hole and then use a red dot light to accurately position the pant an equality problem at this operation will require a replacement of the waistband and all subsequent attachments .

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such as loops and labels the metal caps are decorative and are frequently part of the trademark of the manufacturer the press machine normally has both the studs and the caps fed automatically to the work position through a track in some cases the size or design of the cap or mechanical failure does not facilitate automatic feeding of the parts and the operator must position one or more parts by hand this significantly increases the time required for the job.

But not necessarily the skill required trim and inspect pants is performed to detect any defects in the fabric or the sewing of the garment when garments are to be washed the function is typically performed before going to the laundry.

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Because any open seams will Ravel during the wash process and render the garment unusable there will typically be an after wash inspection as well to prevent defective garments from going to the customer the inspector will trim any excessive threads left by the sewing machines as well as determine the department or person.

That should make the necessary repairs the button jeans operation is a fairly arduous task because of the thickness of the four ply of fabric in the waistband and the inflexibility of the metal button shank the stiffness is more contentious.

if the pants are buttoned before wash a wire loop pulling device is a major improvement to the process special effects are a major style feature of denim wear this broad shot shows that considerable space and personnel are required to create the final look the design personnel of the garment are trying to create a very specific look of the finished Jean.

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There are numerous methods of physically distressing the jeans in order to achieve different looks after the laundry process is completed the laundry process includes not only washing the garment but also applying chemicals and enzymes that change the characteristics of the fabric to achieve consistency in the garments delivered to retail.

some of the specific features are marked on the jeans to guide the operator in addition to the change of the feel of the fabric there is a major focus upon making jeans look as if they are well worn when they’re on display at the retail establishment the two types of wear tend to be shown as specific lines or broad expanses through physical abrasion the specific lines represent creases or where points creating a wear line may be synthesized by using a rotary grinder or a sharp edged abrasive stone or block to abrade the fabric broader areas of wear can be replicated by sanding with sheets of sandpaper or sandblasting the garment while it is supported on a form either of these steps is performed.

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Before the laundry process which will allow the chemical to more vigorously react with the base fabric than the untouched portions of the garment the other major method of changing the visual appearance of the Jean is to cause a chemical reaction with the fabric during the wet processing of the garment.

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One of the primary chemicals currently used is potassium permanganate but others are used for different effects the chemical may be brushed on or sprayed on depending upon the desired effect and the consistency of the chemical itself the combination of length of time the chemical is on the garment and the laundry process.

It self can create a multitude of results the laundry process is a combination of washing and drying the garment with a variety of chemical treatments detergent and physical activation such as stone wash the majority of machines are computer-controlled for duration chemical inflow and speed acceptable results can be achieved with manually controlled machines.

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But require strict monitoring to achieve consistent results the desired effect is usually decided through trial and error sample wash processing in smaller machines and then must be converted to the commercial equipment used in the factory the press pants with buck press operation is similar whether the garment has been washed or not but of course may require more steam pressure and time for the washed garment the press used has separate controls for the steam pressure and vacuum.

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in this case the operator presses the top of the garment by sliding the waste just slightly over the narrow end of the press and bringing the top of the press down in several locations as the garment is turned some locations will use a separate topper press for this step the jeans.

Legs are then positioned for the press defined in the specifications this could be with a center crease or flat front and then pressed with the full length of the press jeans designed to have a more casual finish maybe finished with an automatic form press the pant is fit around an expanding top tie and then the legs are clipped to the bottom of the machine steam is forced through the legs to smooth the legs and the upper form introduces a press from the inside out.

For the top once the press is complete the jeans are typically folded and packed in bulk to ship to the customer.

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